Hoa Le Ngoc, Doctorante au LaRAC
Directeur de thèse : Professeur Philippe Dessus, Université Grenoble Alpes, LaRAC

Résumé :
In the context of the comprehensive education reform in Vietnam at present, the need of determining basic educational theories as well as models for deploy and develop the tightly intertwined components of teaching and learning process including the curriculum, materials, methodologies and evaluation has grown significantly. Whereas an overview introduction of a constructivism-based approach into Vietnamese education was made since the former century, a deeper deployment of this approach is rigorously required, aiming to establish learners’ competencies rather than merely providing knowledge to them as being done in the former education approach. Whereas the competence-based curriculum and its materials that are assigned to deploy a constructivist approach have been subject to hectic preparation, teachers’ opinions and understandings toward the constructivist approach are attracted to concern to explore. In the base of exploration of teachers’ opinions and understandings toward the constructivist approach, we continued to step forward in conducting an experimental research of the constructivism-based teaching and learning model in Vietnamese education context.
The research process was firstly launched with surveying the teachers’ opinions toward the system of the self-study textbooks of Vietnamese language education that were assigned to meet the requirements of a constructivist approach in first-language education. Through a questionnaire, the results enabled us to draw a general picture of to what extend the current textbooks supported the teachers to apply a constructivist approach in their teaching practices. The synthesis of strengths and weaknesses of the self-study textbooks from the survey sheds light on the standards that the constructivism-based materials are required to meet.
Secondly, the concepts and understandings of the teachers toward the constructivist approach in the first language education needed to be explored. Carried out with a mixed-method survey comprising three research instruments as a questionnaire, practical classroom observations and semi-interview, the surveying results gave us power to sketch out a portray of teachers’ concepts and understandings toward the constructivist approach as well as their application on their teaching practice. As specificity of the analysis, we focused on the identification of matches and mismatches between the teachers’ concepts and their teaching practice, of the reasons leading to these statements. Based on these specific analysis, we raised suggestions of the training and educating framework for teachers to establish their competences that are able to conduct a constructivist-based curriculum.
Thirdly, the research process proceeded with a design-based research of a constructivist-based learning model in first language education. In this context, we focused on the description of the design of a formal curriculum for primary Vietnamese language education in which features of a dialectical constructivist approach to learning were synthesized with essential aspects of Vietnamese educational context. The written design comprised outcome competences employed from the curriculum descriptions; a framework that was the synthesis of learning phases with their functions, learning settings and the component outcome competences of language use, and exemplary units/lessons. The outcome competences were formulated to comprehensively develop specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward Vietnamese language for primary students. Derived from these outcome competences, the designed framework consisted of four learning phases respectively labeled as Engagement, Experience, Exploration, and Follow-up. The curriculum design deployed through its exemplary lessons aimed to serve as a deployment of competence-focused approach that limited problems of transmission teaching style that stood in the line with knowledge-focused approach in teaching and learning of first language education in Vietnamese context.
Eventually, in order to evaluate the feasibility of the constructivist-based curriculum in Vietnamese language education in term of building primary students’ language-use competences, a quasi-experimental research was conducted with the participation of four primary school teachers who were previously trained to implement dialectical constructivist-based lessons; and six primary student classes (35 students per class on average). Among these classes, two classes of the city central and two classes of the city environ took the role as experimental groups whereas the two other classes were assigned as control groups. Since the constructivist-based curriculum was only applied on Reading lessons, we focuses on the students’ reading competences such as reading comprehension and response capacities toward the reading texts, together with high-level thinking competences required during the reading process.
The quasi-experimental research lasting 10 weeks started with a pre-test for both groups of participants to determine a qualitative estimation of the input students’ reading competences; and ended with a post-test in order to evaluate to what extent the constructivist-based model improved the students’ reading competences. The process of the quasi-experiment was assigned into three phases: (1) Preparation for teaching the designed curriculum lessons, (2) Teaching and observing the reading lessons, and (3) Reflection on teaching activities and effects on students. A mixed method setup was used to collect the data of the expression of the students’ reading competences as well as the attitudes of both participating teachers and students toward the dialectical constructivist-based model, including classroom observation, student questionnaire and post-lesson discussion with the teachers. Complementarily, the quasi-experimental research results also reflected the feasibility of the dialectical constructivist model within the Vietnamese education context; concurrently, the challenges for the application of the designed curriculum toward teachers, students and educational institutions were synthesized.

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Mis à jour le 13 juillet 2018